Disorders

“Addiction” is a brain disorder, characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences. The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., they are perceived as being inherently positive, desirable, and pleasurable). Addiction exacts a high toll on individuals and society as a whole, through the direct adverse effects of drugs, associated healthcare costs, long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer with smoking, liver cirrhosis with drinking alcohol or “methmouth” from intravenous methamphetamine), and the consequent loss of productivity. Classic hallmarks of addiction include impaired control over substances or behaviour, preoccupation with substance or behaviour, and continued use despite consequences. Habits and patterns associated with addiction are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short-term reward), coupled with delayed deleterious effects (long-term costs).

Examples of drug and behavioural addictions include:


List of Addictions to Substances

  • Alcohol
  • Tobacco
  • Opioids (like heroin)
  • Prescription drugs (sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics like sleeping pills and tranquilizers)
  • Cocaine
  • Cannabis (marijuana)
  • Amphetamines (like methamphetamine, known as meth)
  • Hallucinogens
  • Inhalants
  • Phencyclidine (known as PCP or Angeldust)
  • Other unspecified substances

List of Impulse Control Disorder
Disorders where impulses cannot be resisted, which could be considered a type of addiction.

  • Intermittent explosive disorder (compulsive aggressive and assaultive acts)
  • Kleptomania (compulsive stealing)
  • Pyromania (compulsive setting of fires)
  • Gambling

List of Addictions - Behavioral
It has been suggested one of the types of addictions is a behavioral addiction.

  • Food (eating)
  • Sex
  • Pornography (attaining, viewing)
  • Using computers / the internet
  • Playing video games
  • Working
  • Exercising
  • Spiritual obsession (as opposed to religious devotion)
  • Pain (seeking)
  • Shopping